Turkey and the arab spring leadership in the middle east. Turkey as a source of inspiration for the arab spring. Center for strategic research sam, ministry of foreign affairs, republic of turkey. The islamic political parties of tunisia and egypt gained particular attention for their success in the national elections following the overthrow of their. Once turkey considers and comes to terms with the challenge of formulating a new political language, it can rise to the level it. The eu market and turkeys customs union agreement with the eu allow turkish capitalism to thrive, and necessitate an open society. The last three months have seen unprecedented protests and revolutions in almost all.
The book is called turkey and arap spring, hence a large part is linked to arap spring an middle east he defines the major upcoming conflict in middle east not between sunni and shia, not between turkey and iran, but to my surprise between moderate sunni democratic turkey and extremist wahhabi autocracy saudi arabia. Wednesday, january 11, 2012 abstract tunisia triggered a wave of protests that has been sweeping all over the north africa and the middle east since the early 2011. Click download or read online button to get turkey the arab spring and beyond book now. The influence of displeasure explosion against governments in tunisia, libya and egypt, known as arab spring, on the situation in syria was described. Apr 04, 2012 the policy studies organizations middle east dialogue 2012 democratic islamization in pakistan and turkey. The common slogan of the protesters throughout arab spring was the people want to bring down the regime aissa, 2012. The arab spring and its unintended effects in syria. Similarly, thanks to the arab spring, a turkish state capable of talking with the arab world for the first time in its modern history has emerged. This site is like a library, use search box in the widget to get ebook that you want.
Its uprising also became one of the most consequential. Turkey regional engagement, the arab spring, and the. In 2011 a wave of prodemocracy protests known as the arab spring spread across the arab world. The reasons and economic and political consequences of arab spring 43 egypt, where arab spring lasted longer, is one of the largest countries in africa with its advantages such as its location, tourism revenues and logistics moaddel, 2012. Usled wars devastated the lands and peoples of several countries with widespread, rippling repercussions. First of all, turkey s relations with the countries affected by the arab spring. The effect of the arab spring on turkey we must also dwell on the ignored effects of the arab spring on turkey. In contrast, the arab spring held the promise of new democratic polities in the middle east that could more readily accommodate islamic religious practices, which was a prospect that particularly appealed to the religious and conservative justice and development party akp government in turkey. Starting with tunisia in december of 2010, the citizens of egypt, libya, and iran all. The arab spring has also revealed that turkey s zero problems policy with its neighbors has rested largely on improved ties with specific leaders rather than any sort of prior commitment to strengthening the role played by the normative dimension in regional politics. The bureaucracy of the new turkey tries to keep up with this new period in an impatient and sometimes inexperienced way but has acted selfconfidently in adapting to the developments in the arab world. How relevant is the turkish experience to the future of democracy in the arab world. In the light of the arab uprisings of 2011, the syria crisis, the escalation of regional terrorism and the military coup attempt in turkey, it illustrates the dramatic fluctuations in turkish foreign policy towards key middle eastern countries, such as iran, saudi arabia, egypt, syria and iraq. Especially in its ability to influence outcomes in syria, but also in its reading of regional dynamics in general, turkey finds itself consistently outmaneuvered by other regional powers like russia and iran with longer standing interests in the middle east.
Islamislamism is not confined to arab countries, eg indonesia. Turkey redefined its geographical security environment over the last decade by deepening its engagement with neighboring regions, especially with the middle east. According to the recent arab public opinion poll conducted by the brookings institute, turkey is the biggest winner of the arab spring and was chosen by arabs as the country that has played the most constructive role in the region as a democracy. Despite longstanding allegiances to the west, during the last decade dominated by the islamist justice and development party akp and its charismatic leader. Linz 19 for more than sixty years has had the arab worlds most progressive and womenfriendly family code. Situated at the interstices of europe and the middle east, turkey has a unique and changing role in both regions. May 29, 2012 yet, the legacy of a similar uprising the arab revolt of 1916 to expel fourcenturyold ottoman rule carries many lessons for the arab spring. Turkey, iran and the arab countries to build a more stable, organized, open and prosperous regional order built on their common interests. The third section evaluates that the crisis in syria is different from other arab spring countries. The middle east and north africa henceforth mena are. The eu market and turkey s customs union agreement with the eu allow turkish capitalism to thrive, and necessitate an open society. Arab spring, wave of prodemocracy protests and uprisings that took place in the middle east and north africa beginning in 2010, challenging some of the regions entrenched authoritarian regimes. Arab spring used their powers vehemently to crush the demonstrators and consequently the peaceful protesters also became violent.
The effects of the arab spring, especially where attempts to overthrow authoritarian governments went awry, were not limited to the arab world. The world community and the arab spring springerlink. Nov 01, 2011 thus, despite the fact that turkeys lessons are her own and unique, there is no need to deny the fact that the arab world can benefit from turkeys experiences as the arab spring initiated the process of change in the region. In 2011, the arab spring swept through the middle east with the prospect of change. Syria this guide lists online and print sources for what has become known as the arab spring, the popular revolutionary wave in the middle east and north africa that started in december 2010. Libya the death of dictator first protests in libya started on january 2011 but mass uprisings began in the city of benghazi on 15 february 2011. The inconsistencies in and weaknesses of turkish foreign policy, particularly when mapped against the stances of the european union eu and the united states, may be viewed as byproducts of.
Mediation as a foreign policy tool in the arab spring. The purpose of the arab spring was to bring democracy, freedom and a better life for people. Yemen became one of the first countries to experience the protests. It set the motion in the socalled arab spring and successfully demonstrated that social and political transformation. Tunisami confirmed that in the long term, the stability of. A case study of tunisia, egypt, and turkey, examines specific reasons that have led to the lack of sustainability in muslim democracies other than the historical pattern of. In egypt and tunisia, turkey was unambiguously on the side of democracy.
Pdf arab spring as a background of civil war in syria. Despite his years as a middle east analyst for the cia, the national intelligence council, and the rand corporation, fuller is a fierce critic of u. The future of turkeys model and role, workshop, emirates policy center, 1819 may 2014, abu dhabi the future of the turkish model after the arab spring. Causes of the arab spring causes of the arab spring may be described as following. Cenap cakmak is professor of international law and politics at eskisehir osmangazi university, turkey, and senior researcher at wise men center. The arab spring reveals a number of contradictions and constraints as well as opportunities for turkish foreign policy, all of which are of key relevance both to turkey and to its transatlantic partners. The arab springs effect on kurdish political fortunes. Unlike libya, syria is far more important to the regional balance of power and change in syria will have severe repercussionsnot necessarily negative, although certainly messy. The akps victory in 2007 heralded a shift in turkish foreign policy toward stronger regional ties and greater independence from turkey s traditional alignments with nato, the united states, and israel.
Would the bbc write an article entitled turkey s growing ties with arab world if turkey were part of the arab world. The most important lesson learned from the arab spring is the bankruptcy of the idea of authoritarian modernisation in the arab world. Turkey and the arab spring iai istituto affari internazionali. Turkey and the arab spring turkeys stable democracy, proactive foreign policy, and growing achievements have made it a soft power in the region. Nov 11, 2011 similarly, thanks to the arab spring, a turkish state capable of talking with the arab world for the first time in its modern history has emerged. May 06, 2014 turkey and the arab spring by graham fuller 4 stars american perspectives and the overwhelming power of domestic policies, often obsessively center around simplistic polarities of israel good and iran bad, lacking understanding of regional dynamics, or any empathy for the aspirations of the people not regimes of the regions. Time to abandon the autocrats and embrace rights the international response to the arab spring by kenneth roth introductory chapter on the arab revolt.
He spreads the blame for the middle easts woes among western powers and local actors. Generally speaking, the instability shaking up the arab world presented dangers but. Bridging the gap between ideas and institutions bulent aras. The arab spring was a series of prodemocracy uprisings that enveloped several largely muslim countries, including tunisia, morocco, syria, libya, egypt and. Turkeys changing foreign policy and the arab spring. Overreliance on foreign help and international third parties to deal with an indigenous cause eventually enabled these outside sources to shape and eventually hijack that indigenous cause. May 08, 2014 the book is called turkey and arap spring, hence a large part is linked to arap spring an middle east he defines the major upcoming conflict in middle east not between sunni and shia, not between turkey and iran, but to my surprise between moderate sunni democratic turkey and extremist wahhabi autocracy saudi arabia. In addition, the article discusses how this issue affects relations among the aforementioned. The middle east and north africa henceforth mena are areas of conflict and opposed perceptions. Islamists and the arab spring journal of democracy. During prime minister erdogans recent tour of arab countries, he was welcomed by the egyptians, and.
Turkey turkey regional engagement, the arab spring, and the syrian civil war. Contrary to many arab countries, turkey does not have any oil, so it needs genuine economic growth. Turkey underwent the most dramatic changes of its democratic history, propelling it into the role of major regional actor. The arab spring was a phenomenon that shocked the international community. Middle east studies, marine corps university, 2012. Use features like bookmarks, note taking and highlighting while reading turkey and the arab spring. Between ethics and selfinterest summer 2012 45 abstract t he middle east, broadly defined, has emerged as one of the focal points of a new, more assertive, and proactive style of turkish foreign policy in recent years. Similarly, what arabs care about is not that turkey is a muslim country, but that it is a democracy.
Turkey has undergone the most massive change in its modern democratic history and is now a key player in the middle east. The 21st century has transformed relationships in the middle east. The arab spring has once again demonstrated the importance of turkey for ensuring a secure and stable environment in the middle east. Leadership in the middle east find, read and cite all the research you need on researchgate. Turkey and the arab spring by graham fuller 4 stars american perspectives and the overwhelming power of domestic policies, often obsessively center around simplistic polarities of israel good and iran bad, lacking understanding of regional dynamics, or any empathy for the aspirations of the people not regimes of the regions. This volume examines contemporary political relations between turkey and the middle east.
But in syria, that movement turned into a bloody civil war with chaos and destruction. Turkish involvement in the arab spring and the syrian civil war began at a time when turkeys impressive record of democratic progress and economic growth in the 2000s fueled remarkable optimism domestically and internationally about the countrys potentially democratizing influence in the greater middle east, often discussed as the turkish model. Turkey and the arab spring international relations. The book thus makes a sound contribution to the existing literature on the arab spring in form of foreign policy analysis and provides an overview of the current shape and outlook of global politics.
As such, it is the most capitalist country in the islamic world. The rollercoaster events of the arab spring have cast the region into geopolitical turmoil on a long, lurching path to change. The arab spring has provided an opportunity for stronger cooperation between turkey and the west. Prior to the socalled arab spring turkey had become quite active in the region.
As the arab spring progressed, realpolitik came to the fore. Request pdf on dec 20, 2014, muharrem eksi and others published turkey and the arab spring. Syria could emerge as the most important test case of this. The roots and causes of the 2011 arab uprisings kamal eldin osman salih abstract. The arab spring and turkeys relations with hamas and the palestinian. The second part assesses whether turkey is changing its axis under the rule of ak party. More than a year after the inception of the socalled arab spring, turkeys muchballyhooed regional rise is teetering on the brink.
Trukish journalist mustafa akyol tells fareed zakaria why the protests are not a spring, but still a crisis. Turkeys failed policy toward the arab spring department of. Islam and democracy after the arab spring oxford scholarship. Lessons for the post arab spring middle east chair. As the arab spring unfolds at different speeds in different countries, turkey continues to urge arab governments to undertake genuine reform. The first presents turkey s response to the uprisings in four countriestunisia, egypt. Dede is a professor of international relations at zirve university, gaziantep, turkey. In the wake of the arab spring with turkeys relations with israel at an alltime low, an escalation of the cyprus issue and turkeys belated public support for the revolution in syria, there are many both in turkey and without asking whether this zero problems policy is still relevant or workable.
Turkey, russia, and the arab spring ponars eurasia. The public sector innovation journal, 181, 20, article 8. Turkeys role in the arab spring and the syrian conflict tpq. In late 2010, the wave of civil resistance known as the arab spring stunned the world as dictatorships in tunisia, egypt, and libya were overthrown, while the regimes of bahrain, syria, and yemen brutally suppressed their own revolutions. The arab spring, however, challenged not only the authoritarian regimes in the region but also turkish foreign policy strategy. Demonstrators expressing political and economic grievances faced violent crackdowns by.
This article addresses the approaches of turkey, iran, syria, and iraq in dealing with the kurdish issue, with a special focus on historical background. The middle east in the 21st century has witnessed a gamechanging rollercoaster ride that has transformed relationships. Turkey, the arab spring and beyond 1st edition bulent. Leadership in the middle east kindle edition by fuller, graham e download it once and read it on your kindle device, pc, phones or tablets. The arab spring cast the region into political and social turmoil. The reasons and economic and political consequences of. The democratic momentum of the arab spring faltered, while erdo. Pdf the future of the turkish model after the arab spring. The middle east in the 21st century has witnessed a gamechanging rollercoaster ride that has transformed relationships across the boards. Therefore, i thought that it was the right time to prepare this study of turkeys foreign policy towards the middle east under the shadow of the arab spring.
Turkey became more outspoken in its support for palestinians rights and its disapproval of israeli. Turkey and the arab spring 23 turkey and the arab spring sarah akram introduction t urkey. Politics comes first gadi wolfsfeld 1, elad segev2, and tamir sheafer3 abstract the goal of this article is to place the role that social media plays in collective action within a more general theoretical structure, using the events of the arab spring as a case study. Kurdish populations, especially in turkey, iraq and syria, were deeply affected by the changes sweeping the middle east. The arab spring, however, challenged not only the authoritarian regimes in the region but also turkish foreign policy strategy, which was based. Reform and capacity building in the turkish foreign ministry. Thi s researc h articl e attempts to scrutinize the nature and cause s of the ara b uprising s which too k people by surpris e globall y throughou t 2011 and int o 2012. A parsimonious explanation of recent contentious politics 2 whether american democratization policies have supported the protests barnes, 20 and described the importance of safetyvalve elections in autocratic regimes such as morocco buehler, 20.
The effect of the arab spring on turkey turkish news. Just as turkey had a role in the transformation of the arab world, the arab world will also play a significant role in the formation of the new turkey. Turkey as an alternative model for the arab spring countries. Turkey the arab spring and beyond download ebook pdf. The fourth section analyzes the new turkish foreign policy for the arab spring countries.599 1470 1427 221 780 730 1657 270 1029 162 1071 222 561 58 407 377 1183 1494 737 76 335 758 720 815 355 1585 789 582 510 1572 263 381 1271 377 1236 331 724 311